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1978 Peace Agreement Between Israel Egypt

Sadat and B├ęgin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978 for their performance, although the Cairo-based Arab League suspended Egypt from membership. The League lifted its ban in 1989. On October 6, 1981, Islamist military officers assassinated Sadat while observing a victory parade in Cairo commemorating the anniversary of Egypt`s crossing of the Suez Canal during the 1973 war with Israel. Carter`s advisers insisted on the creation of an Israeli-Egyptian agreement that would result in a final settlement of the Palestinian question. They believed in a short, loose and independent bond between the two countries, strengthened by the creation of a coherent basis for a settlement. But Carter did not feel “high enough” and was interested in setting up a written “Land for Peace” agreement with Israel, which restores the Sinai Peninsula and the West Bank. In early November, Egyptian President Sadat, frustrated by the lack of movement, took a dramatic step by announcing on November 9 that he would be ready to go to Jerusalem. This step has puzzled the world. Sadat would try to break the deadlock and directly engage the Israelis in favor of a settlement on the Middle East, without any return speech at the Geneva conference. Sadat`s visit led to direct talks between Egypt and Israel in December, but these discussions did not yield substantial progress.

In January 1978, the United States returned to a more important negotiating role. At a ceremony on the White House`s South Lawn, presided over by President Jimmy Carter, that took place that day in 1979, Egypt and Israel, which have fought four wars since 1948, signed a formal peace treaty. Although an important step, the successful conclusion of the Israeli-Egyptian treaty was the flood mark of the peace process under President Carter. After March 1979, the issue would not receive the same degree of American attention due to the competing demands of crises, notably in Iran and Afghanistan, as well as Carter`s desire to reduce his personal participation in the next round of negotiations on Palestinian autonomy. For these talks, Carter appointed a “special negotiator” to represent the United States; Former Special Trade Representative Robert Strauss held this position shortly before being replaced in the fall of 1979 by Sol Linowitz, who had previously been involved in negotiating the Panama Canal contract. .

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