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Union Collective Agreement
Collective agreements are used to supplement legislation or to negotiate scope-specific contracts. The main principle is that collective agreements cannot contain terms that are less than the statutory requirements. During the negotiation, employees are represented by an elected committee and a professional trade unionist employed for this purpose. The rules mentioned in collective agreements most often concern working hours. These issues include, for example, systems for balancing shift work time, shift work pay and days off. The term “collective bargaining” was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb, founder of the INDUSTRIAL relations sector in the United Kingdom.  It refers to the type of collective bargaining and agreements that have existed since the rise of trade unions in the 18th century. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 made it illegal for every employer to deny trade union rights to a worker. The issue of unionization of government employees in a public sector union was much more controversial until the 1950s. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy passed an executive order granting federal employees the right to form unions.
In Finland, collective agreements are of general application. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. British law reflects the historically contradictory nature of labour relations in the United Kingdom. In addition, workers are concerned that the union, if it were to file a collective agreement infringement action, would be bankrupted, which would allow workers to remain in collective bargaining without representation. This unfortunate situation can change slowly, including due to EU influences. Japanese and Chinese companies, which have British factories (particularly in the automotive industry), try to pass on the company`s ethics to their workers. [Clarification needed] This approach has been adopted by local British companies, such as Tesco. Workers are not required to join a union in a given workplace. Nevertheless, most industries, with an average union training of 70%, are subject to a collective agreement.
An agreement does not prohibit higher wages and better benefits, but sets a legal minimum, much like a minimum wage. In addition, an agreement on national income policy is often, but not always, reached, bringing together all trade unions, employers` organisations and the Finnish government.  In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector. The Act makes it illegal for employers to discriminate, spy, harass or terminate workers because of their union membership or to retaliate for organizing campaigns or other “concerted activities,” creating business unions or refusing to engage in collective bargaining with the union that represents their employees. It is also illegal to require any worker to join a union as a condition of employment.  Trade unions are also able to ensure safe working conditions and adequate remuneration for their work. Non-union members can bargain collectively with an employer or employer, but their negotiation cannot end with a collective agreement that is only identical or very similar individual employment contracts. The employer and the union must keep a signed copy of the collective agreement and provide a copy to employees if they request it.